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Sleep Breath. 2013 Sep;17(3):1003-8. doi: 10.1007/s11325-012-0790-3. Epub 2012 Dec 4.

The relationship between cephalometric carotid artery calcification and Framingham Risk Score profile in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

Author information

1
Division of General Oral Care, Kyushu University Hospital, 3-1-1 Maidashi Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, Japan. htsuda@dent.kyushu-u.ac.jp

Abstract

PURPOSE:

The morbidity rate of arteriosclerosis becomes clinically manifested as acute cardiovascular events. In the progress of atherosclerosis, the carotid artery calcifies and sometimes appears as a calcified mass on a cephalometric radiograph. This study was designed to evaluate cardiovascular risks according to the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) between subjects with and without visible carotid artery calcification on a cephalogram.

METHODS:

Subjects diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were divided into two groups according to whether or not calcification was visible on a cephalometric radiograph in the carotid artery area, and the characteristic differences between the two groups were analyzed. The evaluated variables included age, BMI, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), SpO2, ESS, blood pressure, medication history, diabetes mellitus (DM), drinking, smoking, and lipid-related measurements. FRSs for stroke, general cardiovascular disease (GCD), and coronary heart disease (CHD) were calculated. Statistical analyses were performed (SPSS 18.0) with significance defined as a two-tailed p value less than 0.05.

RESULTS:

A total of 811 subjects completed the data collection (727 males, age 53.0 ± 12.5 years, AHI 31.7 ± 22.6, times/h). From FRSs, probabilities of a GCD, stroke, and CHD within 10 years were 16.0 ± 9.7, 9.8 ± 6.7, and 11.9 ± 8.3 %, respectively. Some 84 subjects exhibited calcification in the carotid arterial area. Calcification subjects were higher GCD risk and older than subjects who had no identified calcification (20.3 ± 10.1 vs 15.6 ± 20.3 %, p = 0.013, 58.8 ± 11.4 vs. 52.3 ± 12.5 years, p < 0.001). Although there is no significant difference in OSA-related variables and FRSs, subjects with visible calcifications have higher prevalence of high blood pressure medication and DM (p < 0.01).

CONCLUSION:

While the presence of a calcified mass on a cephalometric radiograph is not diagnostic of atherosclerosis, this information indicates some cardiovascular risk.

PMID:
23208741
DOI:
10.1007/s11325-012-0790-3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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