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Minerva Stomatol. 2012 Nov-Dec;61(11-12):477-90.

Treatment of a bone defect consequent to the removal of a periapical cyst with equine bone and equine membranes: clinical and histological outcome.

[Article in English, Italian]

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Department of Dentistry, Vita e Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy.



While deproteinized bovine bone and bovine membranes have been well studied and can yield good results when used to treat bone defects and peri-implant dehiscences, enzymatically deantigenated equine bone and equine membranes have emerged as possible alternative biomaterials. The objective of this study was the clinical and histological assessment of such materials: equine bone granules, an equine collagen membrane and an equine pericardium membrane.


Enzymatically deantigenated equine bone and an equine collagen membrane were used to restore a bone defect caused by the removal of a bone cyst in the upper anterior maxilla. After 4.5 months, an implant was placed and a bone core sample was obtained from the grafted site. Implants threads, though, were exposed. This defect was grafted with a mixture of autogenous and equine bone and covered with an equine pericardium membrane.


Four months after implant placement the peri-implant bone levels were maintained. A prosthesis was delivered three months later providing functional and esthetic rehabilitation. Also four-year follow-up controls showed implant success. Histological analysis of the bone core revealed that the graft material had undergone remodelling, and a fair amount of newly formed vital bone was present at the time of sample collection.


The deantigenated equine bone is biocompatible and undergoes osteoclastic remodelling. Both the equine collagen and pericardium membrane acted as effective barriers for guided bone regeneration.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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