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J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol. 2012 Oct;19(4):315-8. doi: 10.1097/LBR.0b013e31826a3aed.

Endobronchial actinomycosis after airway stenting.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI 48202, USA.


Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative infection with filamentous, gram-positive, nonspore forming anaerobic bacteria of the genus Actinomyces. Actinomyces species are commensals of the human oropharynx, gastrointestinal tract, and female genitalia. Involvement of the thorax accounts for 15% to 20% of actinomycosis cases. Thoracic actinomycosis classically presents as an intrapulmonary infection of the alveoli, peribronchial tissue, and/or bronchioles. Endobronchial actinomycosis is a rare condition that has been reported in association with aspiration of a foreign body or broncholithiasis. A critical component in the pathogenesis is disruption of the mucosal barrier, thereby allowing invasion of the microorganisms from aspirated oropharyngeal secretions. Even with a high clinical suspicion, actinomycosis is a diagnostic challenge. The most common symptoms of endobronchial actinomycosis include cough, sputum production, and fever. The disease is often confused with lung cancer, tuberculosis, fungal infections, nocardiosis, and poorly responding pneumonia. The present case highlights the first reported case of endobronchial actinomycosis associated with a covered nitinol endobronchial stent.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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