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Sleep. 2012 Dec 1;35(12):1693-703. doi: 10.5665/sleep.2246.

Validation of a questionnaire to screen for shift work disorder.

Author information

1
Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA. lkbarger@hms.harvard.edu

Abstract

STUDY OBJECTIVE:

At least 15% of the full-time work force is shift workers. Working during the overnight hours, early morning start times, and variable or rotating schedules present a challenge to the circadian system, and these shifts are associated with adverse health and safety consequences. Shift work disorder (SWD), a primary (circadian rhythm) sleep disorder indicated by excessive daytime sleepiness and/or insomnia associated with a shiftwork schedule, is under-recognized by primary care physicians. We sought to develop and validate a questionnaire to screen for high risk of SWD in a shift working population.

DESIGN:

Shift workers completed a 26-item questionnaire and were evaluated by a sleep specialist (physician) who diagnosed them as either positive or negative for SWD. The physician assessment of SWD was guided by a flow chart that operationalized the ICSD-2 criteria for SWD.

SETTING:

18 sleep clinics in the USA.

PATIENTS OR PARTICIPANTS:

311 shift workers.

INTERVENTIONS:

Not applicable.

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS:

Responses to the items in the questionnaire were entered into a series of discrimination function analyses to determine the diagnostic value of the items and the fewest number of questions with the best predictive value. The function was then cross-validated. A final 4-item questionnaire has 89% positive predictive value and 62% negative predictive value (sensitivity = 0.74; specificity = 0.82).

CONCLUSIONS:

This Shiftwork Disorder Screening Questionnaire may be appropriate for use in primary care settings to aid in the diagnosis of SWD.

PMID:
23204612
PMCID:
PMC3490362
DOI:
10.5665/sleep.2246
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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