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Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2013 Jan;32(1):3-14. doi: 10.1097/PGP.0b013e31825554e9.

Clear cell carcinomas of the ovary: a multi-institutional study of 129 cases in Korea with prognostic significance of Emi1 and Galectin-3.

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Department of Pathology, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea.


Accurate diagnosis of ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is important because of its poor prognosis with chemoresistance and a high recurrent rate. The clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic significance of the cell cycle regulator [early mitotic inhibitor-1 (Emi1)] and galactoside-binding protein (Galectin-3) were evaluated. Among 155 CCCs from 18 hospitals in Korea between 1995 and 2006, 129 pure CCCs were selected with consensus using immunohistochemical stains for hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β, Wilms' tumor protein, and estrogen receptor. The expressions of Emi1, Galectin-3, p53, and Ki-67 labeling index were analyzed with clinicopathologic parameters and the patient's survival. The mean age of the patients was 49.6 yr; the tumors were bilateral in 10.9%, and the average size was 12 cm. Adenofibromatous component was found in 7%, and endometriosis in 48.1% of the cases. Psammoma body was seen in 16.3%. Disease-free survival and overall survival rates were 78.3% and 79.1%, respectively. The International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology (FIGO) stage was the most important prognostic indicator. Emi1 expression (>5%) was seen in 23.3% of CCCs, and associated with high FIGO grades and poor overall survival (P<0.05). High Galectin-3 (≥80%) expression was seen in 59.7% of CCCs, and associated with FIGO stages III and IV, and high Ki-67 labeling index. High Ki-67 labeling index (≥50%) and p53 expression (≥50%) were seen in 27.1% and 18.6% of CCCs, respectively, but there was no clinicopathologic and prognostic significance. On the basis of the fact that the expression of Emi1 in CCC was correlated with a high histologic grade and worse overall survival, target therapy using inhibitors of Emi1 may be tried in the management of CCC patients with Emi1 expression.

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