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J Dairy Sci. 2013 Feb;96(2):838-53. doi: 10.3168/jds.2012-5993. Epub 2012 Nov 29.

Angiotensin I-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity of the Norwegian autochthonous cheeses Gamalost and Norvegia after in vitro human gastrointestinal digestion.

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Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Chr. Magnus Falsens vei 1, 1432 Ås, Norway.


The angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of Gamalost cheese, its pH 4.6-soluble fraction, and Norvegia cheese was monitored before and after digestion with human gastric and duodenal juices. Both Gamalost and Norvegia cheeses showed an increased ACE-inhibitory activity during gastrointestinal digestion. However, only Norvegia showed pronounced increased activity after duodenal digestion. More peptides were detected in digested Gamalost compared with digested Norvegia. Most of the peptides in Gamalost were derived from β-casein (CN), some originated from α(s1)-CN, and only a very few originated from α(s2)-CN and κ-CN. In general, the number of peptides increased during gastrointestinal digestion, whereas some peptides were further degraded and disappeared; however, surprisingly, a few peptides remained stable. The aromatic amino acids, such as Tyr, Phe, and Trp; the positively charged amino acids (Arg and Lys); and Leu increased after simulated gastrointestinal digestion of Gamalost and Norvegia. After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, both Gamalost and Norvegia showed high ACE-inhibitory activity, which may contribute in lowering of mild hypertension.

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