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Public Health Nutr. 2014 Jan;17(1):131-8. doi: 10.1017/S1368980012004946. Epub 2012 Nov 16.

A proposed method to determine fumonisin exposure from maize consumption in a rural South African population using a culturally appropriate FFQ.

Author information

1
1 Division of Human Nutrition, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, Cape Town, South Africa.
2
2 Population Health, Health Systems and Innovation, Human Sciences Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa.
3
3 Department of Biochemistry, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.
4
5 School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health & Behavioural Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To develop an FFQ for estimating culture-specific maize intake that can distinguish between home-grown and commercial maize. Home-grown maize is more likely to be contaminated with fumonisins, mycotoxins that are associated with increased risk of oesophageal cancer.

DESIGN:

An existing FFQ developed for use in urban Xhosa populations was used as the initial framework for the maize-specific FFQ (M-FFQ). The existing questionnaire contained 126 food items divided into ten food groups (bread, cereals, vegetables, fruit, meat, dairy, snacks, condiments, beverages and fat). The M-FFQ was developed based on additional data obtained from a literature search, 24 h recalls (n 159), in-depth interviews (n 4), focus group discussions (n 56) and expert consultation. Food items available in local shops (n 3) were compared with information obtained from focus group discussions.

SETTING:

Five villages in two rural isiXhosa-speaking areas of the Eastern Cape Province, known to have a high incidence of oesophageal cancer, were randomly selected.

SUBJECTS:

Women aged 18-55 years were recruited by snowball sampling and invited to participate.

RESULTS:

The final M-FFQ comprised twenty-one maize-based food items, including traditional Xhosa dishes and beverages. The questionnaire focused on maize-specific dishes and distinguished between home-grown maize and commercial maize consumption.

CONCLUSIONS:

A culturally specific dietary assessment method was designed to determine maize consumption and therefore fumonisin exposure. The questionnaire will be tested against 24 h recalls and other methods to determine its validity, after which it will be used in various epidemiological studies to determine fumonisin exposure.

PMID:
23199706
DOI:
10.1017/S1368980012004946
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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