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Antioxid Redox Signal. 2013 Sep 20;19(9):958-69. doi: 10.1089/ars.2012.5081. Epub 2013 Jan 22.

The methionine sulfoxide reduction system: selenium utilization and methionine sulfoxide reductase enzymes and their functions.

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1
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea. hykim@ynu.ac.kr

Abstract

SIGNIFICANCE:

Selenium is utilized in the methionine sulfoxide reduction system that occurs in most organisms. Methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs), MsrA and MsrB, are the enzymes responsible for this system. Msrs repair oxidatively damaged proteins, protect against oxidative stress, and regulate protein function, and have also been implicated in the aging process. Selenoprotein forms of Msrs containing selenocysteine (Sec) at the catalytic site are found in bacteria, algae, and animals.

RECENT ADVANCES:

A selenoprotein MsrB1 knockout mouse has been developed. Significant progress in the biochemistry of Msrs has been made, which includes findings of a novel reducing system for Msrs and of an interesting reason for the use of Sec in the Msr system. The effects of mammalian MsrBs, including selenoprotein MsrB1 on fruit fly aging, have been investigated. Furthermore, it is evident that Msrs are involved in methionine metabolism and regulation of the trans-sulfuration pathway.

CRITICAL ISSUES:

This article presents recent progress in the Msr field while focusing on the physiological roles of mammalian Msrs, functions of selenoprotein forms of Msrs, and their biochemistry.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS:

A deeper understanding of the roles of Msrs in redox signaling, the aging process, and metabolism will be achieved. The identity of selenoproteome of Msrs will be sought along with characterization of the identified selenoprotein forms. Exploring new cellular targets and new functions of Msrs is also warranted.

PMID:
23198996
PMCID:
PMC3763222
DOI:
10.1089/ars.2012.5081
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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