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Case Rep Nephrol Urol. 2012 Jan;2(1):65-71. doi: 10.1159/000339501. Epub 2012 Jun 5.

Balloon-assisted creation and maturation of an arteriovenous fistula in a patient with small-caliber vasculature.

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Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Japan ; Kotoda Jin Clinic, Shimotsuke, Japan.


The major problem associated with the creation of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF), which is the optimal form of vascular access for hemodialysis, is the fact that fistulas do not necessarily mature into a usable vascular access, requiring subsequent revision and construction of another access. The caliber of the vessels used for fistula creation is a pivotal factor predicting the presumable maturation of the constructed fistula, and veins less than 2.5 mm in diameter have poor outcomes. This report describes the balloon-assisted creation and maturation of an autogenous radial-cephalic AVF in a patient with a small-caliber vein and a radial artery measuring approximately 2 and 1.5 mm in diameter, respectively. The clinical impact of percutaneous radiological intervention for expediting the maturation of an autogenous AVF with small-caliber vessels is also discussed.


Balloon angioplasty; Hemodialysis; Maturation; Radial-cephalic arteriovenous fistula; Vascular access failure

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