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Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jan;97(1):147-54. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.039222. Epub 2012 Nov 28.

Vitamin D, season, and risk of prostate cancer: a nested case-control study within Norwegian health studies.

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  • 1Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. h.e.meyer@medisin.uio.no

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

It is biologically plausible that vitamin D might prevent prostate cancer. However, recent meta-analyses concluded that there is no consistent relation between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations and prostate cancer, and several large studies have actually reported an increased risk of prostate cancer associated with high 25(OH)D.

OBJECTIVE:

We aimed to assess the prospective relations between serum 25(OH)D, serum retinol, and risk of prostate cancer.

DESIGN:

In this nested case-control study, Norwegian men who participated in population-based health studies between 1981 and 1991 were followed with respect to prostate cancer throughout 2006. For each case (n = 2106), a matched control was selected. Stored serum was analyzed for 25(OH)D by using HPLC atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

RESULTS:

We showed a positive relation between an increasing 25(OH)D concentration and prostate cancer risk [rate ratio (RR): 1.15 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.27) per 30-nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D concentration]. Predefined analyses stratified by season showed no relation for subjects with serum collected during winter and spring (RR: 1.00 per 30-nmol/L increase), whereas a strengthened positive association [RR: 1.27 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.47) per 30-nmol/L increase] was observed in men with serum collected during the summer and autumn. There was no relation between serum retinol and prostate cancer.

CONCLUSIONS:

The cause for increased risk of prostate cancer related to a high 25(OH)D concentration only during the summer and autumn is not obvious. The effect may be related to vitamin D itself or to other factors associated with sun exposure.

PMID:
23193007
DOI:
10.3945/ajcn.112.039222
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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