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Chromosoma. 2013 Mar;122(1-2):1-12. doi: 10.1007/s00412-012-0392-7. Epub 2012 Nov 29.

Cooperating transcription factors mediate the function of estrogen receptor.

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Breast Cancer Research group, Centre for Molecular Medicine Norway, Nordic EMBL Partnership, University of Oslo and Oslo University Hospital, 0318 Oslo, Norway.


Estrogen receptor (ER) is a hormone-regulated transcription factor that controls cell division and differentiation in the ovary, breast, and uterus. The expression of ER is a common feature of the majority of breast cancers, which is used as a therapeutic target. Recent genetic studies have shown that ER binding occurs in regions distant to the promoters of estrogen target genes. These studies have also demonstrated that ER binding is accompanied with the binding of other transcription factors, which regulate the function of ER and response to anti-estrogen therapies. In this review, we explain how these factors influence the interaction of ER to chromatin and their cooperation for ER transcriptional activity. Moreover, we describe how the expression of these factors dictates the response to anti-estrogen therapies. Finally, we discuss how cytoplasmatic signaling pathways may modulate the function of ER and its cooperating transcription factors.

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