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Arch Toxicol. 2013 Apr;87(4):735-51. doi: 10.1007/s00204-012-0988-y. Epub 2012 Nov 29.

Endocrine disruptors and bone metabolism.

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School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, University of Camerino, Via Gentile III da Varano, 62032 Camerino, MC, Italy.


Bone microenvironment is a complex dynamic equilibrium between osteoclasts and osteoblasts and is modulated by a wide variety of hormones and osteocyte mediators secreted in response to physiological and pathological conditions. The rate of remodeling involves tight coupling and regulation of both cells population and is regulated by a wide variety of hormones and mediators such as parathyroid hormone, prostaglandins, thyroid hormone, sex steroids, etc. It is also well documented that bone formation is easily influenced by the exposure of osteoblasts and osteoclasts to chemical compounds. Currently, humans and wildlife animals are exposed to various environmental xenoestrogens typically at low doses. These compounds, known as endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), can alter the systemic hormonal regulation of the bone remodeling process and the skeletal formation. This review highlights the effects of the EDCs on mammalian bone turnover and development providing a macro and molecular view of their action.

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