Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Nutr. 2013 Jan;143(1):114-22. doi: 10.3945/jn.112.168542. Epub 2012 Nov 28.

Cross-sectional time series and multivariate adaptive regression splines models using accelerometry and heart rate predict energy expenditure of preschoolers.

Author information

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.


Prediction equations of energy expenditure (EE) using accelerometers and miniaturized heart rate (HR) monitors have been developed in older children and adults but not in preschool-aged children. Because the relationships between accelerometer counts (ACs), HR, and EE are confounded by growth and maturation, age-specific EE prediction equations are required. We used advanced technology (fast-response room calorimetry, Actiheart and Actigraph accelerometers, and miniaturized HR monitors) and sophisticated mathematical modeling [cross-sectional time series (CSTS) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS)] to develop models for the prediction of minute-by-minute EE in 69 preschool-aged children. CSTS and MARS models were developed by using participant characteristics (gender, age, weight, height), Actiheart (HR+AC_x) or ActiGraph parameters (AC_x, AC_y, AC_z, steps, posture) [x, y, and z represent the directional axes of the accelerometers], and their significant 1- and 2-min lag and lead values, and significant interactions. Relative to EE measured by calorimetry, mean percentage errors predicting awake EE (-1.1 ± 8.7%, 0.3 ± 6.9%, and -0.2 ± 6.9%) with CSTS models were slightly higher than with MARS models (-0.7 ± 6.0%, 0.3 ± 4.8%, and -0.6 ± 4.6%) for Actiheart, ActiGraph, and ActiGraph+HR devices, respectively. Predicted awake EE values were within ±10% for 81-87% of individuals for CSTS models and for 91-98% of individuals for MARS models. Concordance correlation coefficients were 0.936, 0.931, and 0.943 for CSTS EE models and 0.946, 0.948, and 0.940 for MARS EE models for Actiheart, ActiGraph, and ActiGraph+HR devices, respectively. CSTS and MARS models should prove useful in capturing the complex dynamics of EE and movement that are characteristic of preschool-aged children.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons


    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Silverchair Information Systems Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center