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J Neurosci Rural Pract. 2012 Sep;3(3):244-50. doi: 10.4103/0976-3147.102596.

Characteristics of seizure frequency among Malaysian children diagnosed with structural-metabolic epilepsy.

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College of Pharmacy, Al-Rashed University, Baghdad, Iraq.



Seizure-free patients or substantial reduction in seizure frequency are the most important outcome measures in the management of epilepsy. The study aimed to evaluate the patterns of seizure frequency and its relationship with demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes.


A retrospective cohort study was conducted at the Pediatric Neurology Clinic, Hospital Pulau Pinang. Over a period of 6 months, the required data were extracted from the medical records using a pre-designed data collection form.


Seizure frequency showed no significant association with patient's demographics and clinical characteristic. However, significant reduction in seizure frequency from the baseline to the last follow-up visit was only seen in certain subgroups of patients including Malays, females, patients <4 years of age, patients with global developmental delay/intellectual disability, and patients with focal seizure. There was no significant association between seizure frequency and rate of adverse events. Polytherapy visits were associated with higher seizure frequency than monotherapy visits (27.97 ± 56.66, 10.94 ± 30.96 attack per month, respectively) (P < 0.001). There was a clear tendency to get antiepileptic drugs used at doses above the recommended range in polytherapy (8.4%) rather than in monotherapy (1.4%) visits (P < 0.001). A significant correlation was found between seizure frequency and number of visits per patient per year (r = 0.450, P < 0.001).


Among children with structural-metabolic epilepsy, Malays, females, patients <4 years of age, patients with global developmental delay/intellectual disability and patients manifested with focal seizure are more responsive antiepileptic drug therapy than the other subgroups of patients.


Pediatrics; seizure frequency; structural–metabolic epilepsy

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