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Circulation. 2013 Jan 1;127(1):74-85. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.091215. Epub 2012 Nov 27.

A glucagon-like peptide-1 analog reverses the molecular pathology and cardiac dysfunction of a mouse model of obesity.

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1
Toronto General Research Institute, Toronto, Canada.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Cardiac consequences of obesity include inflammation, hypertrophy, and compromised energy metabolism. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is an incretin hormone capable of cytoprotective actions that reduces inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress in other tissues. Here we examine the cardiac effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide in a model of obesity, independent of changes in body weight.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

C57Bl6 mice were placed on a 45% high-fat diet (HFD) or a regular chow diet. Mice on HFD developed 46±2% and 60±2% greater body weight relative to regular chow diet-fed mice at 16 and 32 weeks, respectively (both P<0.0001), manifesting impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and cardiac ceramide accumulation by 16 weeks. One-week treatment with liraglutide (30 µg/kg twice daily) did not reduce body weight, but reversed insulin resistance, cardiac tumor necrosis factor-α expression, nuclear factor kappa B translocation, obesity-induced perturbations in cardiac endothelial nitric oxide synthase, connexin-43, and markers of hypertrophy and fibrosis, in comparison with placebo-treated HFD controls. Liraglutide improved the cardiac endoplasmic reticulum stress response and also improved cardiac function in animals on HFD by an AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent mechanism. Supporting a direct mechanism of action, liraglutide (100 nmol/L) prevented palmitate-induced lipotoxicity in isolated mouse cardiomyocytes and primary human coronary smooth muscle cells and prevented adhesion of human monocytes to tumor necrosis factor-α-activated human endothelial cells in vitro.

CONCLUSIONS:

Weight-neutral treatment with a glucagon-like peptide-1 analog activates several cardioprotective pathways, prevents HFD-induced insulin resistance and inflammation, reduces monocyte vascular adhesion, and improves cardiac function in vivo by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. These data support a role for glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs in limiting the cardiovascular risks of obesity.

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