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Hum Mol Genet. 2013 Mar 1;22(5):941-51. doi: 10.1093/hmg/dds499. Epub 2012 Nov 25.

X-linked dystonia parkinsonism syndrome (XDP, lubag): disease-specific sequence change DSC3 in TAF1/DYT3 affects genes in vesicular transport and dopamine metabolism.

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Institute of Human Genetics, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.


X-chromosomal dystonia parkinsonism syndrome (XDP, 'lubag') is associated with sequence changes within the TAF1/DYT3 multiple transcript system. Although most sequence changes are intronic, one, disease-specific single-nucleotide change 3 (DSC3), is located within an exon (d4). Transcribed exon d4 occurs as part of multiple splice variants. These variants include exons d3 and d4 spliced to exons of TAF1, and an independent transcript composed of exons d2-d4. Location of DSC3 in exon d4 and utilization of this exon in multiple splice variants suggest an important role of DSC3 in the XDP pathogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we transfected neuroblastoma cells with four expression constructs, including exons d2-d4 [d2-d4/wild-type (wt) and d2-d4/DSC3] and d3-d4 (d3-d4/wt and d3-d4/DSC3). Expression profiling revealed a dramatic effect of DSC3 on overall gene expression. Three hundred and sixty-two genes differed between cells containing d2-d4/wt and d2-d4/DSC3. Annotation clustering revealed enrichment of genes related to vesicular transport, dopamine metabolism, synapse function, Ca(2+) metabolism and oxidative stress. Two hundred and eleven genes were differentially expressed in d3-d4/wt versus d3-d4/DSC3. Annotation clustering highlighted genes in signal transduction and cell-cell interaction. The data show an important role of physiologically occurring transcript d2-d4 in normal brain function. Interference with this role by DSC3 is a likely pathological mechanism in XDP. Disturbance of dopamine function and of Ca(2+) metabolism can explain abnormal movement; loss of protection against reactive oxygen species may account for the neurodegenerative changes in XDP. Although d3-d4 also affect genes potentially related to neurodegenerative processes, their physiologic role as splice variants of TAF1 awaits further exploration.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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