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Front Genet. 2012 Nov 19;3:250. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2012.00250. eCollection 2012.

Role of Glyoxalase 1 (Glo1) and methylglyoxal (MG) in behavior: recent advances and mechanistic insights.

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Department of Pathology, University of Chicago Chicago, IL, USA.


Glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) is a ubiquitous cellular enzyme that participates in the detoxification of methylglyoxal (MG), a cytotoxic byproduct of glycolysis that induces protein modification (advanced glycation end-products, AGEs), oxidative stress, and apoptosis. The concentration of MG is elevated under high-glucose conditions, such as diabetes. As such, GLO1 and MG have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Recently, findings have linked GLO1 to numerous behavioral phenotypes, including psychiatric diseases (anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and autism) and pain. This review highlights GLO1's association with behavioral phenotypes, describes recent discoveries that have elucidated the underlying mechanisms, and identifies opportunities for future research.


AGE; CNV; GABA; advanced glycation end-products; anxiety-like behavior; depression; pain; restless-leg syndrome

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