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Pharm Res. 2013 Mar;30(3):761-80. doi: 10.1007/s11095-012-0918-y. Epub 2012 Nov 22.

Cyclosporine inhibition of hepatic and intestinal CYP3A4, uptake and efflux transporters: application of PBPK modeling in the assessment of drug-drug interaction potential.

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Centre for Applied Pharmacokinetic Research School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PT, Manchester, UK.



To apply physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to investigate the consequences of reduction in activity of hepatic and intestinal uptake and efflux transporters by cyclosporine and its metabolite AM1.


Inhibitory potencies of cyclosporine and AM1 against OATP1B1, OATP1B3 and OATP2B1 were investigated in HEK293 cells +/- pre-incubation. Cyclosporine PBPK model implemented in Matlab was used to assess interaction potential (+/- metabolite) against different processes (uptake, efflux and metabolism) in liver and intestine and to predict quantitatively drug-drug interaction with repaglinide.


Cyclosporine and AM1 were potent inhibitors of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, IC(50) ranging from 0.019-0.093 μM following pre-incubation. Cyclosporine PBPK model predicted the highest interaction potential against liver uptake transporters, with a maximal reduction of >70% in OATP1B1 activity; the effect on hepatic efflux and metabolism was minimal. In contrast, 80-97% of intestinal P-gp and CYP3A4 activity was reduced due to the 50-fold higher cyclosporine enterocytic concentrations relative to unbound hepatic inlet. The inclusion of AM1 resulted in a minor increase in the predicted maximal reduction of OATP1B1/1B3 activity. Good predictability of cyclosporine-repaglinide DDI and the impact of dose staggering are illustrated.


This study highlights the application of PBPK modeling for quantitative prediction of transporter-mediated DDIs with concomitant consideration of P450 inhibition.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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