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J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012 Dec;60(12):2197-205. doi: 10.1111/jgs.12032. Epub 2012 Nov 23.

Calcium and vitamin D supplementation and cognitive impairment in the women's health initiative.

Author information

1
HealthPartners Research Foundation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. Rebecca.C.Rossom@Healthpartners.com

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To examine the effects of vitamin D and calcium on cognitive outcomes in elderly women.

DESIGN:

Post hoc analysis of a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

SETTING:

Forty Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical centers across the United States.

PARTICIPANTS:

Four thousand one hundred forty-three women aged 65 and older without probable dementia at baseline who participated in the WHI Calcium and Vitamin D Trial and the WHI Memory Study.

INTERVENTION:

Two thousand thirty-four women were randomized to receive 1,000 mg of calcium carbonate combined with 400 IU of vitamin D(3) (treatment) and 2,109 to placebo.

MEASUREMENTS:

Primary: classifications of probable dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) based on a four-phase protocol that included central adjudication. Secondary: global cognitive function and individual cognitive subtests.

RESULTS:

Mean age of participants was 71. During a mean follow-up of 7.8 years, 39 participants in the treatment group and 37 in the placebo group developed incident dementia (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.71-1.74, P = .64). Likewise, 98 treatment participants and 108 placebo participants developed incident MCI (HR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.72-1.25, P = .72). There were no significant differences in incident dementia or MCI or in global or domain-specific cognitive function between groups.

CONCLUSION:

There was no association between treatment assignment and incident cognitive impairment. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects of vitamin D and calcium separately, on men, in other age and ethnic groups, and with other doses.

PMID:
23176129
PMCID:
PMC3521077
DOI:
10.1111/jgs.12032
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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