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J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Apr;131(4):1048-57, 1057.e1-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2012.09.027. Epub 2012 Nov 20.

Programmed cell death ligand 2 regulates TH9 differentiation and induction of chronic airway hyperreactivity.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033-9605, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Asthma is defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways; however, the underlying physiologic and immunologic processes are not fully understood.

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to determine whether TH9 cells develop in vivo in a model of chronic airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and what factors control this development.

METHOD:

We have developed a novel chronic allergen exposure model using the clinically relevant antigen Aspergillus fumigatus to determine the time kinetics of TH9 development in vivo.

RESULTS:

TH9 cells were detectable in the lungs after chronic allergen exposure. The number of TH9 cells directly correlated with the severity of AHR, and anti-IL-9 treatment decreased airway inflammation. Moreover, we have identified programmed cell death ligand (PD-L) 2 as a negative regulator of TH9 cell differentiation. Lack of PD-L2 was associated with significantly increased TGF-β and IL-1α levels in the lungs, enhanced pulmonary TH9 differentiation, and higher morbidity in the sensitized mice.

CONCLUSION:

Our findings suggest that PD-L2 plays a pivotal role in the regulation of TH9 cell development in chronic AHR, providing novel strategies for modulating adaptive immunity during chronic allergic responses.

PMID:
23174661
PMCID:
PMC3651917
DOI:
10.1016/j.jaci.2012.09.027
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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