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J Dent. 2013 Mar;41(3):223-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2012.11.005. Epub 2012 Nov 19.

Effect of gloss and heat on the mechanical behaviour of a glass carbomer cement.

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Department of Restorative Dentistry, Dental School of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Goethestr. 70, 80336 Munich, Germany.



The effect of gloss and heat on the mechanical behaviour of a recently launched glass carbomer cement (GCP, GCP dental) was evaluated and compared with resin-modified glass ionomer cements (Fuji II LC, GC and Photac Fil Quick Aplicap, 3M ESPE).


120bar-shaped specimens (n=20) were produced, maintained in distilled water at 37°C and tested after one week. The GCP specimens were cured with and without heat application and with and without gloss. The flexural strength and modulus of elasticity in flexural test as well as the micro-mechanical properties (Vickers Hardness, indentation modulus, creep) of the top and bottom surface were evaluated. The amount and size of the fillers, voids and cracks were compared using a light and a scanning electron microscope.


In the flexural test, the resin-modified glass ionomer cements performed significantly better than GCP. Fuji II LC and Photac Fil (Weibull parameter: 17.7 and 14.3) proved superior reliability in the flexural test compared to GCP (1.4-2.6). The highest Vickers Hardness and lowest creep were achieved by GCP, whereas Fuji II LC reached the highest indentation modulus. The results of this study proved that relationships exist between the compositions, microstructures and mechanical properties of the cements.


Heat treatment and gloss application did not influence the mechanical properties of GCP. The mechanical properties were basically influenced by the type of cement and its microstructure.


Considering the measured mechanical properties, there is no need of using gloss or heat when restoring teeth with GCP.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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