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Vaccine. 2013 Jul 25;31(34):3396-402. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.11.027. Epub 2012 Nov 19.

Dose sparing and enhanced immunogenicity of inactivated rotavirus vaccine administered by skin vaccination using a microneedle patch.

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Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.


Skin immunization is effective against a number of infectious diseases, including smallpox and tuberculosis, but is difficult to administer. Here, we assessed the use of an easy-to-administer microneedle (MN) patch for skin vaccination using an inactivated rotavirus vaccine (IRV) in mice. Female inbred BALB/c mice in groups of six were immunized once in the skin using MN coated with 5 μg or 0.5 μg of inactivated rotavirus antigen or by intramuscular (IM) injection with 5 μg or 0.5 μg of the same antigen, bled at 0 and 10 days, and exsanguinated at 28 days. Rotavirus-specific IgG titers increased over time in sera of mice immunized with IRV using MN or IM injection. However, titers of IgG and neutralizing activity were generally higher in MN immunized mice than in IM immunized mice; the titers in mice that received 0.5 μg of antigen with MN were comparable or higher than those that received 5 μg of antigen IM, indicating dose sparing. None of the mice receiving negative-control, antigen-free MN had any IgG titers. In addition, MN immunization was at least as effective as IM administration in inducing a memory response of dendritic cells in the spleen. Our findings demonstrate that MN delivery can reduce the IRV dose needed to mount a robust immune response compared to IM injection and holds promise as a strategy for developing a safer and more effective rotavirus vaccine for use among children throughout the world.


IRV; Microneedle; Rotavirus; Skin immunization

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