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Physiol Res. 2013;62(1):47-56. Epub 2012 Nov 22.

Comparative efficacy of three brands of gum acacia on adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats.

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Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Al Khod, Oman.


Gum acacia (GA) is used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries as an emulsifier and stabilizer, and in some countries in the traditional treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We have previously found that GA ameliorates adenine-induced chronic renal failure (CRF) in rats. Different brands of GA are commercially available, but their comparative efficacy against adenine-induced CKD is unknown. Here, we explored the effects of three different brands of GA (Sudanese GA, Supergum and GA from BDH) on some physiological, biochemical, and histological effects of adenine-induced CRF in rats. Adenine (0.75 %, w/w in feed, four weeks) reduced body weight, and increased urine output. It also induced significant increases in blood pressure, and in creatinine, urea, several inflammatory cytokines in plasma, and indices of oxidative stress, and caused histological damage in kidneys. Treatment of rats concomitantly with any of the three GA brands, significantly, and to a broadly similar extent, mitigated all the signs of CRF. The results suggested equivalent efficacy of these brands in antagonizing the CRF in this animal model. However, to enable standardization of different brands between laboratories, the use of the chemically well-characterized GA preparation (such as Supergum) is recommended.

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