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Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2012;63(3):339-46.

[Influence of selected factors on fortified food intake by children].

[Article in Polish]

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Katedra Zywienia Człowieka, Wydział Nauk o Zywieniu Człowieka i Konsumpcji, Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie.



The range of food products fortified with vitamins and minerals in Poland is growing rapidly in the last years. Also the consumption of such food and dietary supplements is increasing. Therefore there is a risk of excessive intake of vitamins and minerals.


The aim of the study was to analyze the determinants of intake of food products fortified with vitamins and minerals among children aged 6-12.


Data was collected by a questionnaire specially developed and a FFQ method including vitamins and/or minerals in fortified food products. There were collected data from parents of 743 children (374 boys, 369 girls) attending primary schools, placed in four different districts of Poland.


More than 70% of children consumed food products fortified with vitamins and/or minerals, among them 76% - every day. As a main reason of intake of fortified food by children, parents mentioned the beneficial effects on health (86.2% parents) and taste preferences (61.2%). However, the main reason of no consuming this kind of products, were proper nutrition of the children (57.4%), no influence on health (30.3%) and prohibitive price (24,1%). There were statistically significant relationships between intake of food fortified with vitamins and/or minerals and children's age (75.8% of age 6-9 years vs. 58.1% of age 10-12 years), health condition (71.6% of children with good and very good health status -assessed by parents - vs. 55.6% with average and poor health status), the number of meals eaten during the day (75.6% eating 4 meals/day vs. 67.8% - 5 and more meals vs. 52.3% - 3 meals), regular breakfast eating (71.8% eating vs. 50.0% non consumption), brunch eating (73.3% vs. 54.0% respectively), afternoon snack eating (75.7% vs. 59.4%) and using of dietary supplements (84.6% among children who use supplements vs. 61.4% among non users).


It was established that about 22% of parents were unaware that their children consumed food fortified with vitamins and/or minerals. Food fortified with vitamins and/or minerals was consumed more frequently among younger children, specially among those who eat more meals per day and with good and very good health status. Due to the fact that many children consumed both fortified foods and dietary supplements, there is a risk of exceeding levels consider as safe (UL) of some vitamins and/or minerals.

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