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Toxicol Environ Chem. 2012;24(9):1805-1821. Epub 2012 Oct 10.

GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING OF HUMAN LIVER CARCINOMA (HepG2) CELLS EXPOSED TO THE MARINE TOXIN OKADAIC ACID.

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1
Division of Marine Biology and Fisheries, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Cswy, Miami, FL, USA 33149.

Abstract

The marine toxin, okadaic acid (OA) is produced by dinoflagellates of the genera Prorocentrum and Dinophysis and is the causative agent of the syndrome known as diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP). In addition, OA acts as both a tumor promoter, attributed to OA-induced inhibition of protein phosphatases as well as an inducer of apoptosis. To better understand the potentially divergent toxicological profile of OA, the concentration dependent cytotoxicity and alterations in gene expression on the human liver tumor cell line HepG2 upon OA exposure were determined using RNA microarrays, DNA fragmentation, and cell proliferation assays as well as determinations of cell detachment and cell death in different concentrations of OA. mRNA expression was quantified for approximately 15,000 genes. Cell attachment and proliferation were both negatively correlated with OA concentration. Detached cells displayed necrotic DNA signatures but apoptosis also was broadly observed. Data suggest that OA has a concentration dependent effect on cell cycle, which might explain the divergent effects that at low concentration OA stimulates genes involved in the cell cycle and at high concentrations it stimulates apoptosis.

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