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Environ Health Perspect. 2013 Jan;121(1):125-30. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1205221. Epub 2012 Nov 19.

In utero exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and anogenital distance in newborns and infants.

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1
Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona, Spain.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Anogenital distance in animals is used as a measure of fetal androgen action. Prenatal exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in rodents causes reproductive changes in male offspring and decreases anogenital distance.

OBJECTIVE:

We assessed whether in utero exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds adversely influences anogenital distance in newborns and young children (median age, 16 months; range, 1-31 months).

METHODS:

We measured anogenital distance among participants of the "Rhea" mother-child cohort study in Crete and the Hospital del Mar (HMAR) cohort in Barcelona. Anogenital distance (AGD; anus to upper penis), anoscrotal distance (ASD; anus to scrotum), and penis width (PW) were measured in 119 newborn and 239 young boys; anoclitoral (ACD; anus to clitoris) and anofourchetal distance (AFD; anus to fourchette) were measured in 118 newborn and 223 young girls. We estimated plasma dioxin-like activity in maternal blood samples collected at delivery with the Dioxin-Responsive Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression (DR CALUX®) bioassay.

RESULTS:

Anogenital distances were sexually dimorphic, being longer in males than females. Plasma dioxin-like activity was negatively associated with AGD in male newborns. The estimated change in AGD per 10 pg CALUX®-toxic equivalent/g lipid increase was -0.44 mm (95% CI: -0.80, -0.08) after adjusting for confounders. Negative but smaller and nonsignificant associations were observed for AGD in young boys. No associations were found in girls.

CONCLUSIONS:

Male infants may be susceptible to endocrine-disrupting effects of dioxins. Our findings are consistent with the experimental animal evidence used by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization to set recommendations for human dioxin intake.

PMID:
23171674
PMCID:
PMC3553434
DOI:
10.1289/ehp.1205221
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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