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Curr HIV Res. 2013 Jan;11(1):67-78.

The beneficial role of vitamin D in human immunodeficiency virus infection.

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Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation, 14971 Brookhurst St., Westminster, CA 92683, USA.


Patients with human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV)-infection have a high prevalence of abnormal bone metabolism and vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D treatment has some benefit in patients with HIV infection. In this paper, we review the evidence for an association between vitamin D and HIV infection. Literature search was done from Medline. Genetic studies have provided the opportunity to determine which proteins link vitamin D to HIV pathology [i.e., the major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, vitamin D receptor, cytochrome P(450), renin-angiotensin system, apoli-poprotein E, liver X receptor, toll-like receptor, poly(ADP-ribosyl) polymerase-1, natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1, and the Sp1 promoter gene]. Vitamin D also exerts its effect on HIV through nongenomic factors, i.e., ultraviolet radiation exposure, matrix metalloproteinase, heme oxygenase-1, the prostaglandins, cyclooxygenase-2, and oxidative stress. In conclusion, vitamin D may have a beneficial role in HIV. Calcitriol, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 should be tested in HIV-infected population because of its active form of the vitamin D3 metabolite and modulates inflammatory cytokine expression. Further investigation with calcitriol in HIV is needed.

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