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Oncoimmunology. 2012 Oct 1;1(7):1161-1162.

Redirecting neutrophils against bladder cancer cells by BCG and Smac mimetic combination.

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Department of Urology, Unit 1373; The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center; Houston, TX USA.


Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy results in neutrophil recruitment and subsequent secretion of cytokines to eliminate non-muscle invasive bladder cancer cells. However, bladder cancer cells often resist BCG immunotherapy. Thus, understanding the mechanism of action of BCG, and designing appropriate combination therapies might help to overcome BCG resistance and redirect neutrophils against bladder cancer cells.

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