Send to

Choose Destination
Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Dec;55 Suppl 4:S271-93. doi: 10.1093/cid/cis762.

A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between Giardia lamblia and endemic pediatric diarrhea in developing countries.

Author information

Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.


We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis examining the association between diarrhea in young children in nonindustrialized settings and Giardia lamblia infection. Eligible were case/control and longitudinal studies that defined the outcome as acute or persistent (>14 days) diarrhea, adjusted for confounders and lasting for at least 1 year. Data on G. lamblia detection (mainly in stools) from diarrhea patients and controls without diarrhea were abstracted. Random effects model meta-analysis obtained pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Twelve nonindustrialized-setting acute pediatric diarrhea studies met the meta-analysis inclusion criteria. Random-effects model meta-analysis of combined results (9774 acute diarrhea cases and 8766 controls) yielded a pooled OR of 0.60 (95% CI, .38-.94; P = .03), indicating that G. lamblia was not associated with acute diarrhea. However, limited data suggest that initial Giardia infections in early infancy may be positively associated with diarrhea. Meta-analysis of 5 persistent diarrhea studies showed a pooled OR of 3.18 (95% CI, 1.50-6.76; P < .001), positively linking Giardia with that syndrome. The well-powered Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) is prospectively addressing the association between G. lamblia infection and diarrhea in children in developing countries.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center