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Med Mycol. 2013 Jul;51(5):493-8. doi: 10.3109/13693786.2012.738313. Epub 2012 Nov 21.

Dishwashers are a major source of human opportunistic yeast-like fungi in indoor environments in Mersin, Turkey.

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Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mersin University, Mersin, Turkey.


The natural habitat of opportunistic fungal pathogens is outside of the host; therefore, it is crucial to understand their ecology and routes of transmission. In this study, we investigated the presence of black and filamentous fungi in moist indoor environments in the city of Mersin in subtropical Turkey. In total, 177 private dwellings were screened and 893 samples obtained using cotton swabs and moistened with physiological saline from dishwashers, washing machines, refrigerators, bath-tubs, bathroom walls, and shower heads. These were then inoculated onto malt extract agar supplemented with chloramphenicol, followed by incubation at 37°C. Thirty samples (3.4%) were positive for fungi, which were then identified by sequencing the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region. Exophiala dermatitidis was the most common species (23), followed by E. phaeomuriformis (three), Magnusiomyces capitatus (two), and Candida parapsilosis (two). Genotype A of E. dermatitidis (14) was more prevalent than genotypes B (eight) and C (one) and E. phaeomuriformis was also represented by two genotypes. Our findings suggest that dishwashers are a major indoor niche for thermophilic black yeasts. The occurrence of the opportunistic filamentous fungus M. capitatus in dishwashers is consistent with a recent report.

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