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Open Respir Med J. 2012;6:121-6. doi: 10.2174/1874306401206010121. Epub 2012 Nov 2.

Extra-esophageal manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease: controversies between epidemiology and clicnic.

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Faculty of medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.


Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is widely associated with asthma, chronic cough, and laryngitis. Many studies have focused on acidic reflux; however, acid is just one of many factors that can cause pulmonary injury. The discrepancy between the high frequency of GERD in asthmatic patients and the ineffective reflux therapy outcomes in these patients suggests that GERD may cause injury through other mechanisms, such as pepsinogen, pepsin, bile salts, or other components of reflux materials, instead of the acid. Research using appropriate and innovative methodologies to investigate these potential inflammatory agents in patients with GERD is required to determine the underlying factors associated with pulmonary disorders in these patients.


Gastroesophageal reflux disease; asthma; cough; epidemiology.; respiratory

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