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Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2012 Dec 28;370(1981):5806-19. doi: 10.1098/rsta.2011.0405.

Gauge fields in real and momentum spaces in magnets: monopoles and skyrmions.

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Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan.


Electronic states in magnets are characterized by the quantum mechanical Berry phase defined in both the real and momentum spaces. This Berry phase constitutes the gauge fields, i.e. the emergent electromagnetic fields in solids, and affects the motion of the electrons. In momentum space, the band crossings act as the magnetic monopoles, i.e. the sources or sinks of the gauge flux. In real space, the spin textures with non-coplanar spin configurations produce the gauge field by the solid angle leading to the spin chirality. Skyrmion is the representative structure supporting this gauge field. A typical phenomenon reflecting this gauge field is the anomalous Hall effect, i.e. the Hall effect produced by the spontaneous magnetization combined with the relativistic spin-orbit interaction. We discuss a few examples recently studied related to these issues with some new results on skyrmion formation.

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