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Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2013 Mar;16(1):101-6. doi: 10.1038/pcan.2012.44. Epub 2012 Nov 20.

Metabolic syndrome and lower urinary tract symptoms: the role of inflammation.

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  • 1Department of Urology, Careggi Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.



Epidemiological data indicate that lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)/BPH can be associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Chronic inflammation has been proposed as a candidate mechanism at the crossroad between these two clinical entities.Aim of study is to examine the correlation among pre-operatory LUTS/BPH severity, MetS features and inflammatory infiltrates in prostatectomy specimens.


A total of 271 consecutive men treated with simple prostatectomy were retrospectively selected for this study in two tertiary referral centers for LUTS/BPH. Prostate diameters and volume were measured by transrectal ultrasound, LUTS scored by International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and obstruction by uroflowmetry. The International Diabetes Federation and American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute was used to define MetS. The inflammatory infiltrate was investigated combining anatomic location, grade and extent of flogosis into the overall inflammatory score (IS); the glandular disruption (GD) was used as a further marker.


Eighty-six (31.7%) men were affected by MetS. Prostatic volume and anterior-posterior (AP) diameter were positively associated to the number of MetS components. Among MetS determinants, only dyslipidaemia (increased serum triglycerides and reduced serum high-density lipoprotein) was associated with an increased risk of having a prostatic volume >60 cm(3) (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.268, P < 0.001). A significant positive correlation between the presence of MetS and the IS was observed. MetS patients presented lower uroflowmetric parameters as compared with those without MetS (Maximum flow rate (Q(max)): 8.6 vs 10.1, P = 0.008 and average flow rate (Q(ave)): 4.6 vs 5.3, P = 0.033, respectively), and higher obstructive urinary symptoms score (P = 0.064). A positive correlation among both IS-GD and IPSS Score was also observed (adjusted r = 0.172, P = 0.008 and adjusted r = 0.128, P = 0.050).


MetS is associated with prostate volume, prostatic AP diameter and intraprostatic IS. The significantly positive association between MetS and prostatic AP diameter could support the observation that MetS patients presented lower uroflowmetric parameters. In conclusion, MetS can be regarded as a new determinant of prostate inflammation and BPH progression.

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