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J Food Sci. 2012 May;77(5):C560-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02667.x.

Influence of various cooking methods on the concentrations of volatile N-nitrosamines and biogenic amines in dry-cured sausages.

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Key Laboratory of Meat Processing and Quality Control, Ministry of Education, College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural Univ., Nanjing 210095, P.R. China.


N-nitrosamines, biogenic amines, and residual nitrites are harmful substances and are often present in cured meats. The effects of different cooking methods (boiling, pan-frying, deep-frying, and microwave) were investigated on their contents in dry-cured sausage. The various N-nitrosamines were isolated by a steam distillation method and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The biogenic amines were determined after extraction with perchloric acid as dansyl derivatives by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The results showed that initial dry-cured raw sausage contained 5.31 μg/kg of total N-nitrosamines. Cooking by deep-frying or pan-frying resulted in products having the highest (P < 0.05) contents, compared with boiling or microwave treatments, which were not different from the raw. Although frying increased the content of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), it decreased the contents of histamine and cadaverine. Boiling and microwave treatments decreased the total biogenic amines significantly (P < 0.05). Residual nitrite was significantly reduced by cooking treatments. The results suggest that boiling and microwave treatments were more suitable methods for cured meat.

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