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Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2013 Jan;1277:54-75. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06813.x. Epub 2012 Nov 16.

Bacterial cell-wall recycling.

Author information

1
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556, USA.

Abstract

Many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria recycle a significant proportion of the peptidoglycan components of their cell walls during their growth and septation. In many--and quite possibly all--bacteria, the peptidoglycan fragments are recovered and recycled. Although cell-wall recycling is beneficial for the recovery of resources, it also serves as a mechanism to detect cell-wall-targeting antibiotics and to regulate resistance mechanisms. In several Gram-negative pathogens, anhydro-MurNAc-peptide cell-wall fragments regulate AmpC β-lactamase induction. In some Gram-positive organisms, short peptides derived from the cell wall regulate the induction of both β-lactamase and β-lactam-resistant penicillin-binding proteins. The involvement of peptidoglycan recycling with resistance regulation suggests that inhibitors of the enzymes involved in the recycling might synergize with cell-wall-targeted antibiotics. Indeed, such inhibitors improve the potency of β-lactams in vitro against inducible AmpC β-lactamase-producing bacteria. We describe the key steps of cell-wall remodeling and recycling, the regulation of resistance mechanisms by cell-wall recycling, and recent advances toward the discovery of cell-wall-recycling inhibitors.

PMID:
23163477
PMCID:
PMC3556187
DOI:
10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06813.x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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