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J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2012 Jul;16(3):350-3. doi: 10.4103/0972-124X.100909.

Effect of smoking on salivary composition and periodontal status.

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1
Department of Periodontics, VSPM Dental College and Research Centre, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of smoking on the periodontal status and salivary composition of whole saliva in subjects with clinically healthy periodontium and chronic periodontitis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The study comprised of 400 subjects equally divided into four groups of non-smokers with clinically healthy periodontium, smokers with clinically healthy periodontium, non-smokers with chronic periodontitis and smokers with chronic periodontitis. Clinical measurements and non-stimulated whole saliva were obtained. Biochemical analysis of salivary total protein, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus was performed.

RESULTS:

The clinical parameters of probing depth and clinical attachment levels did not reveal any statistically significant differences between the smokers and non-smokers groups. The plaque index and gingival index were significantly higher in smokers with periodontitis (P<0.05) as compared with non-smokers with periodontitis. On biochemical analysis of whole saliva, total protein, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus were reduced in smokers with periodontitis to 0.43±0.50 gm/dL, 3.47±1.49 mg/dL, 0.80±3.87 mEq/L Neo and 18.45±8.77 mg% from 1.70±2.09 gm/dL, 13.89±10.34 mg/dL, 1.26±0.90 mEq/L Neo and 29.23±16.02 mg%, respectively, in non-smokers with healthy periodontium.

CONCLUSION:

The present study exhibited reduced concentrations of total proteins, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in whole saliva in smokers with chronic periodontitis. It may thus be concluded that the analysis of salivary composition could be used as an auxiliary means of diagnosis.

KEYWORDS:

Periodontitis; salivary minerals; smoking

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