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Indian J Hum Genet. 2012 May;18(2):250-3. doi: 10.4103/0971-6866.100802.

Genetic counseling in carriers of reciprocal translocations involving two autosomes.

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Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.


One of the main genetic causes involve in the pathogenesis of recurrent abortion is parental chromosomal abnormalities. The central concept in genetic counseling with such families is to estimate the probability of recurrence of unfavorable pregnancy outcomes. The main questions that consultants usually ask are: Why did this happen? What is the risk to be done again?Our cases were two families with repeated miscarriage. The pedigrees were drawn, the chromosomes of couples were studied, and estimation for recurrent risk was done. We tried to answer those two main questions and clear the results for them.Parental chromosome abnormalities were founded after karyotyping with GTG technique at 450 band resolution, revealing 46 chromosomes with balanced translocation of autosomes in one of the partner in both families. Recurrent risk was estimated as "high" for their future pregnancies in each family.Couples in which one partner is the carrier of such balanced translocation have increased risks of infertility, recurrent abortion, and delivery of chromosomally abnormal offspring. Genetic counseling of such couples, therefore, presents a unique challenge and should be considered in dealing with such families.


Abortion; family planning; genetic counseling; reciprocal translocation; repeated miscarriages

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