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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Jan;98(1):398-404. doi: 10.1210/jc.2012-3275. Epub 2012 Nov 16.

Maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and measures of newborn and placental weight in a U.S. multicenter cohort study.

Author information

1
Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA.

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Inconsistent associations between maternal vitamin D status and fetal size have been published in small studies.

OBJECTIVE:

Our objective was to examine the association between maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and measures of newborn and placental weight.

DESIGN AND SETTING:

We measured maternal 25(OH)D in mothers from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, an observational cohort conducted in 12 U.S. medical centers from 1959 to 1965.

PARTICIPANTS:

Women delivering singleton, term, live births with 25(OH)D measured at a gestation of 26 wk or less (n = 2146).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Birth weight, ponderal index, placental weight, the placental to fetal weight ratio, and small for gestational age were measured. Hypotheses were formulated after data collection.

RESULTS:

After confounder adjustment, mothers with 25(OH)D of 37.5 nmol/liter or greater gave birth to newborns with 46 g [95% confidence interval (CI), 9-82 g] higher birth weights and 0.13 cm (0.01-0.25 cm) larger head circumferences compared with mothers with less than 37.5 nmol/liter. Birth weight and head circumference rose with increasing 25(OH)D up to 37.5 nmol/liter and then leveled off (P < 0.05). No association was observed between 25(OH)D and ponderal index, placental weight, or the placental to fetal weight ratio. Maternal 25(OH)D of 37.5 nmol/liter or greater vs. less than 37.5 nmol/liter in the first trimester was associated with half the risk of small for gestational age (adjusted odds ratio 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.9), but no second-trimester association was observed.

CONCLUSIONS:

Maternal vitamin D status is independently associated with markers of physiological and pathological growth in term infants. Adequately powered randomized controlled trials are needed to test whether maternal vitamin D supplementation may improve fetal growth.

PMID:
23162094
PMCID:
PMC3537090
DOI:
10.1210/jc.2012-3275
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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