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Nat Med. 2012 Dec;18(12):1841-6. doi: 10.1038/nm.2995. Epub 2012 Nov 18.

Multifunctional in vivo vascular imaging using near-infrared II fluorescence.

Author information

1
Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

Abstract

In vivo real-time epifluorescence imaging of mouse hind limb vasculatures in the second near-infrared region (NIR-II) is performed using single-walled carbon nanotubes as fluorophores. Both high spatial (∼30 μm) and temporal (<200 ms per frame) resolution for small-vessel imaging are achieved at 1-3 mm deep in the hind limb owing to the beneficial NIR-II optical window that affords deep anatomical penetration and low scattering. This spatial resolution is unattainable by traditional NIR imaging (NIR-I) or microscopic computed tomography, and the temporal resolution far exceeds scanning microscopic imaging techniques. Arterial and venous vessels are unambiguously differentiated using a dynamic contrast-enhanced NIR-II imaging technique on the basis of their distinct hemodynamics. Further, the deep tissue penetration and high spatial and temporal resolution of NIR-II imaging allow for precise quantifications of blood velocity in both normal and ischemic femoral arteries, which are beyond the capabilities of ultrasonography at lower blood velocities.

PMID:
23160236
PMCID:
PMC3595196
DOI:
10.1038/nm.2995
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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