Send to

Choose Destination
Immunity. 2012 Nov 16;37(5):905-16. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2012.07.019.

Two distinct types of Langerhans cells populate the skin during steady state and inflammation.

Author information

Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Department of Cell Biology, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen, Germany.


Langerhans cells (LCs), the dendritic cells (DCs) in skin epidermis, possess an exceptional life cycle and developmental origin. Here we identified two types of LCs, short-term and long-term LCs, which transiently or stably reconstitute the LC compartment, respectively. Short-term LCs developed from Gr-1(hi) monocytes under inflammatory conditions and occurred independently of the transcription factor Id2. Long-term LCs arose from bone marrow in steady state and were critically dependent on Id2. Surface marker and gene expression analysis positioned short-term LCs close to Gr-1(hi) monocytes, which is indicative of their monocytic origin. We also show that LC reconstitution after UV light exposure occurs in two waves: an initial fast and transient wave of Gr-1(hi) monocyte-derived short-term LCs is followed by a second wave of steady-state precursor-derived long-term LCs. Our data demonstrate the presence of two types of LCs that develop through different pathways in inflammation and steady state.

Comment in

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center