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Anal Chem. 2012 Dec 18;84(24):10607-13. doi: 10.1021/ac301964e. Epub 2012 Dec 3.

Evaluation of electrokinetic parameters for all DNA bases with sputter deposited nanocarbon film electrode.

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National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566, Japan.


The electrokinetic parameters of all the DNA bases were evaluated using a sputter-deposited nanocarbon film electrode. It is very difficult to evaluate the electrokinetic parameters of DNA bases with conventional electrodes, and particularly those of pyrimidine bases, owing to their high oxidation potentials. Nanocarbon film formed by employing an electron cyclotron resonance sputtering method consists of a nanocrystalline sp(2) and sp(3) mixed bond structure that exhibits a sufficient potential window, very low adsorption of DNA molecules, and sufficient electrochemical activity to oxidize all DNA bases. A precise evaluation of rate constants (k) between all the bases and the electrodes is achieved for the first time by obtaining rotating disc electrode measurements with our nanocarbon film electrode. We found that the k value of each DNA base was dominantly dependent on the surface oxygen-containing group of the nanocarbon film electrode, which was controlled by electrochemical pretreatment. In fact, the treated electrode exhibited optimum k values for all the mononucleotides, namely, 2.0 × 10(-2), 2.5 × 10(-1), 2.6 × 10(-3), and 5.6 × 10(-3) cm s(-1) for GMP, AMP, TMP, and CMP, respectively. The k value of AMP was sufficiently enhanced by up to 33 times with electrochemical pretreatment. We also found the k values for pyrimidine bases to be much lower than those of purine bases although there was no large difference between their diffusion coefficient constants. Moreover, the theoretical oxidation potential values for all the bases coincided with those obtained in electrochemical experiments using our nanocarbon film electrode.

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