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Antioxid Redox Signal. 2013 Oct 10;19(11):1220-35. doi: 10.1089/ars.2012.5066. Epub 2013 Jan 4.

Specificity in S-nitrosylation: a short-range mechanism for NO signaling?

Author information

1
1 Servicio de Inmunología, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Princesa (IP) , Madrid, Spain .

Abstract

SIGNIFICANCE:

Nitric oxide (NO) classical and less classical signaling mechanisms (through interaction with soluble guanylate cyclase and cytochrome c oxidase, respectively) operate through direct binding of NO to protein metal centers, and rely on diffusibility of the NO molecule. S-Nitrosylation, a covalent post-translational modification of protein cysteines, has emerged as a paradigm of nonclassical NO signaling.

RECENT ADVANCES:

Several nonenzymatic mechanisms for S-nitrosylation formation and destruction have been described. Enzymatic mechanisms for transnitrosylation and denitrosylation have been also studied as regulators of the modification of specific subsets of proteins. The advancement of modification-specific proteomic methodologies has allowed progress in the study of diverse S-nitrosoproteomes, raising clues and questions about the parameters for determining the protein specificity of the modification.

CRITICAL ISSUES:

We propose that S-nitrosylation is mainly a short-range mechanism of NO signaling, exerted in a relatively limited range of action around the NO sources, and tightly related to the very controlled regulation of subcellular localization of nitric oxide synthases. We review the nonenzymatic and enzymatic mechanisms that support this concept, as well as physiological examples of mammalian systems that illustrate well the precise compartmentalization of S-nitrosylation.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS:

Individual and proteomic studies of protein S-nitrosylation-based signaling should take into account the subcellular localization in order to gain further insight into the functional role of this modification in (patho)physiological settings.

PMID:
23157283
PMCID:
PMC3785806
DOI:
10.1089/ars.2012.5066
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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