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Kidney Blood Press Res. 2012;36(1):242-7. doi: 10.1159/000343413. Epub 2012 Nov 19.

VAP-1, a novel molecule linked to endothelial damage and kidney function in kidney allograft recipients.

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Department of Nephrology and Transplantology, Medical University, Bialystok, Poland.



VAP-1 (vascular adhesion protein-1) is a copper-containing SSAO (semicarbazide sensitive amine oxidase) secreted by vascular smooth muscle cells, adipocytes, endothelial cells with functional monoamine oxidase activity. The oxidation process generates harmful products that may be involved in atherosclerosis and vascular damage. Elevation of SSAO activity is observed in atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus and obesity. On the other hand, renalase, with possible monoamine oxidase activity, which breaks down catecholamines like SSAO, is also expressed in the endothelium as well as in the kidney. The aim of the study was to assess VAP-1 levels and its correlations with endothelial injury markers and renalase in 50 kidney allograft recipients.


Hemoglobin, urea, creatinine, rate were studied by standard laboratory method in the hospital central laboratory. We assessed markers of endothelial function/injury: vWF, thrombomodulin, ICAM, VCAM, CD40L, CD44, CD146, inflammation: hsCRP, and IL-6 and adipocytokines: leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, apelin with commercially available assays.


The mean serum VAP-1 in Tx was significantly higher comparing to the control group. In kidney transplant recipients VAP-1 correlated with BMI (r=0.39, p<0.01), CD44 (r=0.27, p<0.05), hsCRP (r=0.28, p<0.05), serum creatinine (r=0.29, p<0.05), eGFR (CKD-EPI formula r=-0.27, p<0.05, MDRD r=-0.27,p<0.05, Cockcroft-Gault r=-0.35,p<0.01), serum urea (r=0.27, p<0.05), CD146 (r=0.49, p<0.001), CD40L (r=0.26, p<0.06), and renalase (r=0.34, p<0.05). In multiple regression analysis VAP-1 was predicted 80% by serum creatinine (beta value 0.33, p=0.01), and CD146 (beta value 43, p=0.0005).


VAP-1, elevated in kidney transplant recipients, is predominantly dependent on endothelial damage and kidney function, which deteriorated with time after kidney transplantation.

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