Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2013;5 Suppl 1:8-12. doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.845. Epub 2012 Nov 15.

Newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Istanbul Bilim University, Istanbul, Turkey. atilla.buyukgebiz@gmail.com

Abstract

Newborn screening (NS) for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is one of the major achievements in preventive medicine. Most neonates born with CH have normal appearance and no detectable physical signs. Hypothyroidism in the newborn period is almost always overlooked, and delayed diagnosis leads to the most severe outcome of CH, mental retardation, emphasizing the importance of NS. Blood spot thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) or thyroxine (T4) or both can be used for CH screening. The latter is more sensitive but not cost-effective, so screening by TSH or T4 is used in different programs around the world. TSH screening was shown to be more specific in the diagnosis of CH. T4 screening is more sensitive in detecting especially those newborns with rare hypothalamic-pituitary-hypothyroidism, but it is less specific with a high frequency of false positives mainly in low birth weight and premature infants. The time at which the sample is taken may vary. In the majority of the centers, blood is obtained from a heel prick after 24 hours of age to minimize the false positive high TSH due to the physiological neonatal TSH surge that elevates TSH levels and causes dynamic T4 and T3 changes in the first 1 or 2 days after birth. Early discharge of mothers postpartum has increased the ratio of false positive TSH elevations. Although transient hypothyroidism may occur frequently, all these infants should be treated as having CH for the first 3 years of life, taking into account the risk of mental retardation. A reevaluation after 3 years is needed in such patients. The goal of initial therapy in CH is to minimize neonatal central nervous system exposure to hypothyroidism by normalizing thyroid function, as rapidly as possible.

PMID:
23154158
PMCID:
PMC3608007
DOI:
10.4274/jcrpe.845
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Galenos Yayinevi Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center