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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Nov 27;109(48):19691-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1210916109. Epub 2012 Nov 12.

ARL13B, PDE6D, and CEP164 form a functional network for INPP5E ciliary targeting.

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Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.


Mutations affecting ciliary components cause a series of related genetic disorders in humans, including nephronophthisis (NPHP), Joubert syndrome (JBTS), Meckel-Gruber syndrome (MKS), and Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS), which are collectively termed "ciliopathies." Recent protein-protein interaction studies combined with genetic analyses revealed that ciliopathy-related proteins form several functional networks/modules that build and maintain the primary cilium. However, the precise function of many ciliopathy-related proteins and the mechanisms by which these proteins are targeted to primary cilia are still not well understood. Here, we describe a protein-protein interaction network of inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase E (INPP5E), a prenylated protein associated with JBTS, and its ciliary targeting mechanisms. INPP5E is targeted to the primary cilium through a motif near the C terminus and prenyl-binding protein phosphodiesterase 6D (PDE6D)-dependent mechanisms. Ciliary targeting of INPP5E is facilitated by another JBTS protein, ADP-ribosylation factor-like 13B (ARL13B), but not by ARL2 or ARL3. ARL13B missense mutations that cause JBTS in humans disrupt the ARL13B-INPP5E interaction. We further demonstrate interactions of INPP5E with several ciliary and centrosomal proteins, including a recently identified ciliopathy protein centrosomal protein 164 (CEP164). These findings indicate that ARL13B, INPP5E, PDE6D, and CEP164 form a distinct functional network that is involved in JBTS and NPHP but independent of the ones previously defined by NPHP and MKS proteins.

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