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Acta Reumatol Port. 2012 Apr-Jun;37(2):160-74.

[Portuguese recommendations for pain management by pharmocotherapy in inflammatory arthritis].

[Article in Portuguese]

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Serviço de Reumatologia do Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Ocidental, EPE - Hospital de Egas Moniz, Lisboa, Portugal.



To develop Portuguese evidence-based recommendations for pain management by pharmocotherapy in inflammatory arthritis.


The Portuguese project was integrated in the multinational 3E Initiative (Evidence, Expertise, Exchange) 2010 where a total of 453 rheumatologists from 17 countries have participated. The clinical questions concerning pain were formulated and the Portuguese group added 2 more questions. A systematic literature search was performed in Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and 2008-2009 EULAR and ACR abstracts. The selected articles were systematically reviewed and the evidence was defined according to the Oxford Levels of Evidence. In each country a group of experts joined to discuss their national recommendations. In Portugal, the national meeting was held in October 2010, where 33 rheumatologists discussed and voted by Delphi method the national recommendations. Finally, the agreement among the rheumatologists and the potential impact on their clinical practice was assessed.


Thirteen national recommendations were formulated: pain measure scores; analgesic combination therapy; pharmacotherapy in preconception, pregnancy and lactation periods; pharmacotherapy according to comorbilities; safety of NSAIDs and/or paracetamol with methotrexate combination therapy; efficacy and safety of continuous/on-demand NSAIDs; opioids, paracetamol, corticosteroids, antidepressants, neuromodulators and muscle relaxants role and effectiveness; risk factors for the development of chronic pain and the role of topic analgesics.


The portuguese recommendations for the pain management by pharmacotherapy in inflammatory arthritis were formulated according to the best evidence and supported by a panel of 63 rheumatologists. The differences between the national and international recommendations are reported in this article.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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