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J Mass Spectrom. 2012 Nov;47(11):1420-8. doi: 10.1002/jms.3068.

Analysis of chloroquine and metabolites directly from whole-body animal tissue sections by liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) and tandem mass spectrometry.

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Organic and Biological Mass Spectrometry Group, Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA.


The rapid and direct analysis of the amount and spatial distribution of exogenous chloroquine (CHQ) and CHQ metabolites from tissue sections by liquid extraction surface sampling analysis coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LESA-MS/MS) was demonstrated. LESA-MS/MS results compared well with previously published CHQ quantification data collected by organ excision, extraction and fluorescent detection. The ability to directly sample and analyze spatially resolved exogenous molecules from tissue sections with minimal sample preparation and analytical method development has the potential to facilitate the assessment of target tissue penetration of pharmaceutical compounds, to establish pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships, and to complement established pharmacokinetic methods used in the drug discovery process during tissue distribution assessment.

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