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PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e49102. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049102. Epub 2012 Nov 7.

Effects of PPARγ and RBP4 gene variants on metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients with anti-retroviral therapy.

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Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.



PPARγ and RBP4 are known to regulate lipid and glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. The influences of PPARγ (C1431T and Pro12Ala) and RBP4 (-803GA) polymorphisms on metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients receiving anti-retroviral therapy were examined in this study.


A cross-sectional study of HIV-1 infected adults with antiretroviral therapy for more than one year in the National Cheng Kung University Hospital was conducted. The gene polymorphisms were determined by quantitative PCR.


Ninety-one patients were included in the study. Eighty-two (90.1%) patients were males with a mean age of 44.4 years. For the C1431T polymorphism in PPARγ, while patients with the T allele (48.4%) had trends toward lower rate of hypertriglyceridemia, the borderline significance together with insignificant power did not support the protective effect of the T allele against development of hypertriglyceridemia. For the Pro12Ala polymorphism in PPARγ, although patients with the Pro/Ala genotype (8.8%) had a higher level of serum LDL (138.0 vs. 111.5 mg/dl, P = 0.04) and trends toward higher rates of hypercholesterolemia and serum LDL>110 mg/dl, these variables were found to be independent of the Pro/Ala genotype in the multivariate analysis. For the -803GA polymorphism in RBP4, patients with the A allele (23.1%) more often had insulin resistance (HOMA>3.8; 33.3 vs. 8.7%, P = 0.01) and more often received anti-hypoglycemic drugs (14.3 vs. 1.4%, P = 0.04). The detrimental effect of the A allele in RBP4 -803GA polymorphism on development of insulin resistance was supported by the multivariate analysis adjusting for covariates.


The impacts of PPARγ C1431T and Pro12Ala polymorphisms on metabolism in HIV-infected patients are not significant. RBP4 -803GA polymorphism has increased risk of insulin resistance in HIV-infected patients with anti-retroviral therapy.

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