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J Child Neurol. 2014 Jan;29(1):11-6. doi: 10.1177/0883073812461944. Epub 2012 Nov 8.

Antineuronal antibodies and infectious pathogens in severe acute pediatric encephalitis.

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  • 11Division of Pediatric Neurology, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

Abstract

The pathogenesis of acute encephalitis is divided into either direct infection or by immune-mediated inflammation, but the cause is still unknown. This retrospective study aimed to screen antineuronal antibodies in children with severe acute encephalitis. Thirty-four children (22 boys and 12 girls) underwent assessments such as antineuronal antibodies survey for autoimmune encephalitis and polymerase chain reaction/viral culture and antibody assays for all commonly recognized causes of infectious encephalitis. Sixteen (47.1%) were positive for autoantibodies, including antiglutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies in 16 and voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibodies in 1. Sixteen patients (47.1%) had presumed infectious etiologies, including 6 with influenza, 6 with Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 3 with enterovirus, and 1 with herpes simplex virus. In this study, influenza and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection are the main presumed causes of severe acute encephalitis in children, although an immune-mediated mechanism may also play a role.

KEYWORDS:

antineuronal antibody; immune-mediated inflammation; severe acute encephalitis

PMID:
23143714
DOI:
10.1177/0883073812461944
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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