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Am J Cardiol. 2013 Jan 15;111(2):213-8. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2012.09.016. Epub 2012 Nov 7.

Association of lipoprotein subfractions and coronary artery calcium in patient at intermediate cardiovascular risk.

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Division of Cardiology, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at UCLA-Harbor Medical Center, Torrance, California, USA.


More precise estimation of the atherogenic lipid parameters could improve identification of residual risk beyond what is possible using traditional lipid risk factors. The aim of the present study was to explore the association between advanced analysis of lipoprotein subfractions and the prevalence of coronary artery calcium. Consecutive participants at intermediate cardiovascular risk who were undergoing computed tomographic assessment of coronary calcium (calcium score) were included. Using a validated ultracentrifugation method (the vertical autoprofile II test), cholesterol in eluting lipoprotein subfractions [i.e., low- (LDL), very-low-, intermediate-, and high-density lipoprotein subclasses, lipoprotein (a), and predominant LDL distribution] was directly quantified. A total of 410 patients were included (29% women, mean age 57 years), of whom 297 (72.4%) had coronary artery calcium. LDL pattern B (predominance of small dense particles) emerged as an independent predictor of coronary calcium after adjustment for traditional risk factors (odds ratio 4.46, 95% confidence interval 1.19 to 16.7). However, after additional stratification for dyslipidemia, as defined by conventional lipid profiling, a statistically significant prediction was only retained for high-density lipoprotein subfraction 2 (odds ratio 3.45, 95% confidence interval 2.03 to 50.1) and "real" LDL (odds ratio 6.10, 95% confidence interval 1.26 to 23.41) in the normolipidemia group and for lipoprotein (a) (odds ratio 7.81, 95% confidence interval 1.41 to 43.5) in the dyslipidemic group. In conclusion, advanced assessment of the lipoprotein subfractions [i.e., LDL pattern B, high-density lipoprotein subfraction 2, "real" LDL, and lipoprotein (a)] using the vertical autoprofile II test provided additional information to that of conventional risk factors on the prevalence of coronary artery calcium in patients at intermediate cardiovascular risk.

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